How do you make a fantasy creature look ‘real’?
Filmmakers in the 20th Century were limited by the technology of their time, but were still able to devise creative solutions to this question. For instance, the skeletons in the 1963 epic Jason and the Argonauts were animated using ‘dynamation’, an advancement of the then-popular stop-motion.
For modern movies, the answer to that question usually lies in motion capture. From the subtle twitch of an eyebrow to the graceful leap of a fantastical creature, motion capture ensures that every nuance is captured and conveyed with precision. We look at how this technology brings iconic creatures to life in films.
Motion Capture in Film
Filmmakers are always on the lookout for the next transformative technology that will boost their movies. It’s one of the strengths of the art that these visionaries are free to experiment and create increasingly stunning films.
In the early 2000s, The Lord of the Rings trilogy introduced Gollum, a character that set a new standard for digital characters. Andy Serkis’s performance, enhanced by motion capture, brought a level of depth and realism previously unseen for fantasy creatures. It’s one of the most famous uses of the technology, as well as one of the most successful – the trilogy won a staggering number of special effects awards.
James Cameron’s Avatar in 2009 pushed these boundaries even further. The Na’vi, inhabitants of Pandora, were captured using motion capture. Combined with CGI work on Pandora, Cameron and the production team created an immersive world that was both visually stunning and rich in narrative depth. This film demonstrated how motion capture could not only bring characters to life but also craft entire cultures and ecosystems.
Motion capture is now a mainstay in movies, used in everything from blockbuster titles to indie projects.
Some of the Iconic Motion Capture Creatures in Movies
Gollum (The Lord of the Rings Trilogy)
One of the earliest and most celebrated uses of motion capture for film, Gollum was brought to life by the remarkable performance of Andy Serkis. The character’s lifelike expressions and movements set a new standard for CGI characters in cinema.
King Kong (King Kong, 2005)
Andy Serkis played another iconic creature in King Kong, which showcased the ability to convey nuanced emotions and complex movements on a massive scale. Peter Jackson was also the director, highlighting his skill with using motion capture
James Cameron’s Avatar used advanced motion capture techniques to create the Na’vi, inhabitants of the alien world Pandora. The film pushed the boundaries of technology and artistry in film, creating a rich, immersive world.
Caesar (Planet of the Apes series)
The Planet of the Apes series reboot featured Caesar, a highly intelligent ape, as the protagonist. Andy Serkis’s performance and the sophisticated motion capture technology made Caesar a deeply empathetic and dynamic character.
The Hulk (The Avengers series)
While not a creature in the traditional sense, The Hulk’s portrayal involved motion capture to realistically render the character’s size, strength, and emotions, primarily performed by Mark Ruffalo in the recent films.
Thanos (Avengers: Infinity War and Endgame)
The portrayal of Thanos, performed by Josh Brolin, was a testament to how far motion capture technology has come, allowing for the creation of a villain who was not only physically imposing but also rich in character depth.
How Does it Work?
Motion capture records the movement of objects or people to translate it into digital form. An actor’s movements are tracked using specialised suits with markers or sensors, which capture data points in a 3D space.
These suits enable a computer to track precise movements, facial expressions, and even emotions in real-time. Cameras or sensors placed around the studio record these data points, creating a digital ‘skeleton’ that mirrors the actor’s movements.
The process from capturing an actor’s performance to seeing the final creature on screen involves several steps. Taking Andy Serkis’s portrayal of Gollum as an example. The actor’s motion-captured performance is first recorded, focusing on movements, facial expressions, and emotional nuances.
This raw data is then mapped onto a digital model of the character, in this case, Gollum. Animators and technical directors work on this digital skeleton, refining and enhancing the movements to fit the character’s physical attributes and the film’s specific needs.
The digital model is then textured, lit, and rendered to blend seamlessly into the live-action environment. This involves sophisticated software and a team of artists who add layers of detail, from skin texture and muscle movement to realistic lighting effects.
The final step is compositing, where the fully animated character is integrated into the filmed scenes, ensuring that the interaction between the digital and real elements is cohesive and believable.
Through this intricate process, motion capture bridges the gap between an actor’s performance and the final digital creature, ensuring that the essence of the performance is retained and even amplified in the character we see on screen.
But Sometimes It Isn’t Possible….
… As was the case with Benedict Cumberbatch in the Hobbit movies.
Cumberbatch gave a fantastic performance voicing Smaug, the terrifying dragon that routed the dwarves of Erebor and hoarded their treasure. He also provided the visual references for Smaug’s movements, crawling around a studio while wearing a motion capture suit.
However, dragons and humans have very different anatomies. While Cumberbatch’s MoCap performance gave us a very entertaining behind-the-scenes video, much of it was only used as a reference for creating Smaug’s serpentine movements.
The critical parts of Cumberbatch’s performance, including facial expressions and head nuances, were kept. The rest of Smaug’s movements were built using keyframe animation.
Motion capture plays a crucial role in animating movements for even the most fantastical creatures, bringing new levels of realism – and immersion – to movies. The best part? The technology keeps improving, promising ever-better animations and more realistic creatures.
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